Overview

You may have flat feet from birth or have developed them over time. Unless you have severe or chronic pain, orthotic inserts usually help ease occasional achiness. However, flat feet that become progressively painful or deformed may be caused by problems with your posterior tibial tendon or spring ligament, which supports your arch. Surgery may become necessary. Surgery may involve lengthening the Achilles tendon , fusing the midfoot joint, or transferring healthy tendon from one part of the foot to another. Stiff flat feet are sometimes caused by tarsal coalition, a condition in which the bones of the hindfoot fail to separate during a baby?s development in the womb. Most people go their whole lives without knowing they have a hindfoot condition. But if the condition becomes painful, surgery or fusion may relieve the pain.

Arch Pain


Causes

If the feet are exposed to damp conditions for prolonged periods, you can develop Trench Foot. Most commonly associated with World War One, it now tends to be seen in builders, hikers or festival goers. Trench foot causing numbness and bottom of foot pain. With Trench Foot, the sole of the foot turns a white/grey colour and you may develop pins and needles or numbness. Other symptoms include pain in bottom of foot and swelling. If left untreated, you can develop blisters and permanent nerve damage which can lead to the need for amputation. Treatment and prevention aim to reduce the dampness around the foot and ensure good foot hygiene. Slowly rewarming the feet and using special products in a foot bath really helps reduce the damage and foot arch pain from Trench Foot.


Symptoms

Pain and tenderness associated with plantar fascia strains are usually felt on the bottom of the foot and may manifest either as a specific or general area of tenderness. Plantar fascia pain may be increased or decreased by stretching of the arch. Generally, in mild cases of plantar fasciitis, the pain will decrease as the soft tissues of the foot “warm up”; however, pain may increase as use of the foot increases. In more severe cases of plantar fasciitis, pain may increase when the arch is stressed. A more specific pain (point tenderness) is an indicator that something is wrong in that specific area. Pain with movement of the affected area is also an indicator of the particular body part affected.


Diagnosis

Flat feet are easy to identify while standing or walking. When someone with flat feet stands, their inner foot or arch flattens and their foot may roll over to the inner side. This is known as overpronation. To see whether your foot overpronates, stand on tiptoes or push your big toe back as far as possible. If the arch of your foot doesn’t appear, your foot is likely to overpronate when you walk or run. It can be difficult to tell whether a child has flat feet because their arches may not fully develop until they’re 10 years of age.


Non Surgical Treatment

High arches that are flexible do not require any treatment. In cases where there is pain, shoe modifications such as an arch insert or support insole can help to relieve pain during walking. Custom orthotic devices can be given that fit into the shoe and provide stability and cushioning effect. Your doctor may recommend a brace to help keep the foot and ankle stable. In severe cases, surgery is performed to flatten the foot. Any coexisting nerve disorders are also treated.

Pain In Arch


Surgical Treatment

Foot surgery is difficult, especially when large amounts of deformity correction are needed. The ability to bring the foot into a new position may not be lasting, even if everything looks perfect in the operating room. The goal is to provide improved position and function of the foot and ankle. In some patients with very severe deformity, the goal is a foot that functions well in a brace. There are complications that relate to surgery in general. These include the risks associated with anesthesia, infection, damage to nerves and blood vessels, and bleeding or blood clots. Particular complications associated with cavus foot surgery include incomplete correction of deformity, return of deformity and incomplete fusion.


Prevention

People who run regularly should replace shoes every six months, more frequently if an avid runner. Avoid running or stepping on uneven surfaces. Try to be careful on rocky terrain or hills with loose gravel. Holes, tree stumps and roots are problems if you are trail running. If you have problems with the lower legs, a dirt road is softer than asphalt, which is softer than concrete. Try to pick a good surface if possible. However, if you’re racing, be sure to train on the surface you’ll eventually run on. Be careful running too many hills. Running uphill is a great workout, but make sure you gradually build this up to avoid injuries. Be careful when running downhill too fast, which can often lead to more injuries than running uphills. Prevent recurrent injuries. Athletes who have experienced ankle injuries previously may benefit from using a brace or tape to prevent recurrent ankle injuries.


Stretching Exercises

Strengthening exercises. Below are two simple strength exercises to help condition the muscles, tendons and joints around the foot and ankle. Plantar Rolling. Place a small tin can or tennis ball under the arch of the affected foot. Slowly move the foot back and forth allowing the tin can or tennis ball to roll around under the arch. This activity will help to stretch, strengthen and massage the affected area. Toe Walking. Stand upright in bare feet and rise up onto the toes and front of the foot. Balance in this position and walk forward in slow, small steps. Maintain an upright, balanced posture, staying as high as possible with each step. Complete three sets of the exercise, with a short break in between sets, for a total of 20 meters.